The Boat-billed Heron Cochlearius cochlearius, or arapapá in Portuguese, is one of the more mysterious bird species present at REGUA. Records over the years have been very few and far between, with only occasional sightings of roosting birds from the replanted forest around the wetland.
But for the last three years birds have been arriving at REGUA in the beginning of December and breeding has been suspected. Then on 2nd December Adilei found 12 nests at the wetland in the ten year old replanted forest close to Amanda’s Hide – the first confirmed nesting of Boat-billed Heron at REGUA.
The nests are made from twigs and lined with feathers and situated 6-8 m above ground, and at the time of writing the chicks are close to fledging.
Being a nocturnal species, it is never that easy to see them. But many local birders have recently come to REGUA to photograph these birds and last year Francisco Falcon took this amazing photo of a displaying adult that became a huge success in the local birding world.
In 2012, we captured on camera trap, an adult bird feeding at night along one of the small forest streams that flows into the wetland. Watch the video »
We are well into the austral spring and the weather in October has been rather mixed, with hot temperatures much rainfall, including a couple of days of full rain. Many bird species have now moved to higher, cooler elevations for the spring and summer, whilst activity around the wetland and lodge garden is increasing as more species are breeding.
On the reserve, the wetland continues to provide excellent birding opportunities with an amazing four Sungrebe now being reported – surely a record count for Rio de Janeiro state? Also at the wetland, Boat-billed Heron, Greenish Eleania (very scarce in Rio de Janeiro state), Uniform Crake, Russet-crowned Crake, Rufous-sided Crake, Pauraque and Red-cowled Cardinal (scarce at the wetland nowadays). The adjacent Brown Trail continues to bring in yet more forest interior species, with White-bibbed Antbird and Scaled Antbird making appearances, along with the more usual Sooretama Slaty-Antshrike and Tawny-browed Owl.
Highlights on the Green Trail include Shrike-like Cotinga, Temminck’s Seedeater, White-necked Hawk, Black Hawk-Eagle, Pin-tailed Manakin, Crescent-chested Puffbird, Southern Antpipit, Saw-billed Hermit, Spot-billed Toucanet, Bare-throated Bellbird, Rufous-capped Motmot and Rufous-capped Antthrush.
On the Grey Trail another of REGUA’s specialities, Russet-winged Spadebill, was seen along with Salvadori’s Antwren, Buff-bellied Puffbird and Least Pygmy-Owl, On the 4×4 Trail the very rarely encountered Tufted Antshrike was heard but not seen, and nearby a Bare-throated Bellbird seen on the area planted two years ago near the Guapiaçu river.
At the other end of the reserve on the Waldenoor Trail, another Tufted Antshrike was heard, as was Salvadori’s Antwren, but 2 male Frilled Coquette, Yellow-fronted Woodpecker, White-throated Woodcreeper and Spot-billed Toucanet were amongst the birds seen.
On our night excursions, Giant Snipe, Scissor-tailed Nightjar, South American Snipe, Ash-throated Crake, Streamer-tailed Tyrant and White Woodpecker were all seen.
Excursions offsite have been equally popular and productive. Cabo Frio and its rare coastal restinga habitat produced Restinga Antwren, Roseate Spoonbill, American Oystercatcher, Hudsonian Whimbrel, Greater Yellowlegs, Lesser Yellowlegs, Hangnest Tody-Tyrant, Lemon-chested Greenlet and of course, the Andean Flamingo.
Our trips to the Atlantic Forest mountains produced a good number of high altitude Atlantic Forest endemics. Pico da Caledônia produced great views of the extremely rare Grey-winged Cotinga, nesting Swallow-tailed Cotinga, a female Chestnut-headed Tanager (rare on the coastal slope), Large-tailed Antshrike, Dusky-tailed Antbird, Rufous-tailed Antbird, Yellow-browed Woodpecker, Plovercrest, White-throated Hummingbird, Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper, Sharp-billed Treehunter, Black-billed Scythebill , Shear-tailed Grey Tyrant, Saffron-crested Tyrant-Manakin, Diademed Tanager, Bay-chested Warbling-Finch and Cinnamon Tanager. While at Macaé de Cima, Black-and-gold Cotinga, Bertoni’s Antbird, Giant Anshrike were among the species noted.
On our excursions to the remnants of the Dry Atlantic Forest around Sumidouro we found the highly sought-after Three-toed Jacamar, as well as other open-country species including Blue-winged Macaw, Magpie Tanager, Serra Antwren, Half-collared Sparrow, Sooty Tyrannulet, Firewood-gatherer, Hangnest Tody-Tyrant, Masked Yellowthroat, Ultramarine Grosbeak, Sapphire-spangled Emerald, Plumbeous Kite and White-tailed Hawk.
Finally a belated sighting from September – a Swallow-tailed Cotinga on the Waterfall Trail!
One very desirable bird found in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest is Sharpbill Oxyrincus cristatus. This enigmatic bird with its distinctive orange eye is never easy to find and many of REGUA’s visitors wish to see it during their visit.
It has a wide distribution and is not uncommon, with a call resembling the sound of a falling bomb without the explosion at the end. It appears to be more concentrated in areas of mature secondary or primary Atlantic Forest where it is often found high in the canopies searching for fruit.
Imagine Gustavo Pedro de Paula’s surprise as he spotted the bird feeding low down on Trema micrantha fruit by the REGUA wetlands recently. Gustavo took several photos and suggested that the presence of this species denoted the maturity of the forests by the wetlands, a real sign of the success of our reforestation project. Gradually the more common open ground species are being displaced as the trees around are growing and maturing.
Upon closer examination of the image one could think that the bird was inspecting some chrysalides left by a butterfly. Some tasty morsels so to speak! In any case we extend a big thank you to Gustavo for sharing the image with us.
The sharp-eyed among you will have noticed that our news post about a Chilean Flamingo Phoenicopterus chilensis seen at Cabo Frio on 16 October has been removed. Well, there is an exciting reason for this – the bird has been correctly re-identified as an Andean Flamingo Phoenicoparrus andinus, and the first record for Rio de Janeiro state!
Initially thought to be a Chilean Flamingo, thankfully Alan Martin was able to take a few photos and it was only after subsequently checking the photos a few days later that the true identity of the bird became clear. News of the bird was put out and a major twitch (in Brazilian terms) ensewed, with several local birders making the trip to Cabo Frio to see it. It was still present on 6 November and photos from many photographers can be seen on WikiAves.
Andean Flamingo is the scarcest flamingo species, mostly restricted to the salt lakes of the altiplano of southern Peru, Bolivia, northern Chile and north-west Argentina. They are altitudinal migrants, moving to lower elevations for the winter, and vagrants have made as far as Buenos Aires province in Argentina, the Brazilian Amazon, and Brazil’s southern coast, where flocks of up to 32 individuals together have been found. The Cabo Frio bird is by far the most easterly occurrence of this species.
Very well done to Alan Martin and the Limosa birding group for finding and photographing the bird, and to Gabriel Mello for re-identifying the bird.
Twenty years following the last recorded sighting, the Butantã Institute with American Bird Conservancy support is inviting birders to search in the area north of REGUA for the Kinglet CalypturaCalyptura cristata, a small Cotingidae bird with a greenish sheen and red crest, considered one of the rarest Atlantic Forest endemic birds of Brazil.
John William Swainson, an English ornithologist discovered this bird whilst travelling with Henry Koster 1806 in Brazil. The last sighting of the bird was in 1996 by Ricardo Parrini and Fernando Pacheco amongst fellow ornithologists just below Teresopolis – the first sighting for 119 years!
Many believe the Kinglet Calyptura is extinct says Erika Hingst-Zaherof the Butantã Institute, but two 12 day “Calyptura” expeditions have been organized at different seasons to search for the mythical bird. One area is the Duas Barras region close to Sumidouro, and Birders Luana Bianquini and Gustavo Pedro will also be leading a walk on the Waterfall Trail this Saturday, an area not dissimilar to the Teresopolis region, to search for the bird.
All bird species seen on the expeditions will be registered on eBird and we shall be following the findings closely. Who knows what we might find!
On 15th October, REGUA volunteer Alan Martin and our bird guide Adilei spent a few hours driving around the roads towards the Vecchi area, about 9km from REGUA, looking for some of the ‘trash habitat’ birds that are often overlooked by visitors and not so easy to find at REGUA now that the reforestation is maturing.
Such species include Grassland Sparrow Ammodramus humeralis, Wedge-tailed Grass-Finch Emberizoides herbicola, Grassland Yellow-Finch Sicalis luteola, Masked Yellowthroat Geothlypis aequinoctialis, Plain-breasted Ground-Dove Columbina minuta, Whistling Heron Syrigma sibilatrix, Striped Cuckoo Tapera naevia and many more.
Two weeks ago Adilei had seen a Toco Toucan Ramphastos toco in this area and as we were passing Adilei played a recording of the call, without any great expectation of a sighting. However almost immediately a Toco Toucan stuck his head out of a nest hole in a dead palm tree beside the road, then further down the same road another bird was seen doing the same thing.
Toco Toucan is only a very occasional visitor to REGUA, mainly to the wetland area. Now we know of at least two breeding pairs of Toco Toucans in the local area – how long will it be before they are regular visitors to the reserve?
As we happily reported two weeks ago, Marcos Felipe spotted the Comb Duck Sarkidiornis sylvicola on the REGUA wetlands making this a very first for the Reserve’s bird list. The photo wasn’t the best of the bird, as it likes to keep the White-faced Whistling-Ducks Dendrocygna viduata company and they stay well hidden. Marcos didn’t have a powerful lens, but it was nethertheless a magnificent record shot.
This weekend Ricardo and Elisa came and stayed at the lodge. Ricardo had visited before and he has a lot of experience in scuba diving practising under water photography. He arrived with his brother and their respective wives to stay at REGUA and dabble at photographing birds, as well as soaking up the calm nature REGUA offers.
Adilei took him out on the morning of Sunday 7th August and they espied the Comb Ducks sieving for bugs in the water and was able to get a clearer shot of it for us to share with you all. All credit to Ricardo Mattos and may this successful shot encourage him to take to land and look for birds!
The mid-winter month of July can be a very exciting time for birding at REGUA. An influx of winter visitors to the area, in addition to many species moving to lower elevations for the cooler winter months, mean that at this time of year unusual species can be found, and the REGUA wetland is a good place to watch.
The avian highlight of the month must be the 3 female Comb Ducks that appeared at the wetland for just 15 minutes on 23rd. Sadly they haven’t been seen since.
Another excellent record at the wetland came in the form of a Stygian Owl heard calling for over 10 minutes on 15th, the 2nd record for REGUA, and to the best of our knowledge only the 3rd record for Rio de Janeiro State!
The male Sungrebe continued to show well at the wetland all month, and the much more elusive female also put in an appearance on the 8th (potential future breeders?). Other notable records at the wetland include a Giant Antshrike on the 5th, 12 Azure-shouldered Tanager over on the 5th, a White-necked Thrush on the 6th, 1 Great Black-Hawk on 19th and 2 Masked Duck on 25th.
Situated at the edge of the wetland, the lodge garden produced a couple of notables – a male House Sparrow briefly on 3rd and 2 Giant Cowbirds on 15th (both ‘firsts’ for the garden), and a female Chestnut-bellied Euphonia visiting the feeders from the 8th is further testament to the success of the reforestation around the lodge and the wetland.
Highlights from elsewhere around the reserve include a pair of Red-ruffed Fruitcrows in a fruiting tree along the Forest Trail on 3rd, a female Sooty Grassquit along the Forest Trail on 5th (the first record for this trail), 4+ Yellow-legged Thrush on the Forest Trail on 5th (a very good count for this trail), a male Shrike-like Cotinga on the Forest Trail on 7th (records are getting closer and closer to the lodge!), and at Waldenoor 1m Frilled Coquette and a Planalto Woodcreeper were present on 10th.
Several excellent spot-lighting excursions led by Adilei in July produced extremely close views of small numbers of Giant Snipe on the the ground by torch-light, along with Scissor-tailed Nightjar, Spot-tailed Nightjar, Common Potoo, Tropical Screech-Owl, and Burrowing Owl. Also just outside the reserve, a Streamer-tailed Tyrant was a notable sighting on 18th.
Finally, an intriguing sighting was made this month by one of our rangers, Antonio, who spotted a Black-fronted Piping-guan feeding from a fruit tree. Presumably one of the 10 birds introduced at REGUA in 2008, this is the first sighting since 2010 and this bodes well for the forthcoming introduction of a further 40 birds as part of the SAVE Brasil Projeto Jacutinga reintroduction programme.
Marcos Felipe Pinto has been running his popular course in Wildlife in Focus for the last four years at REGUA. As a talented biologist, he felt the need for training and together with his wife Carina developed a course aimed at professionals and biologists who want to learn field techniques in animal identification. The weekend courses are intense and receive up to 20 students from all over Brazil and even neighbouring countries.
On Sunday 23rd July, while taking the students around the wetlands, Marcos spotted a different duck, and with binoculars identified it being the Comb Duck Sarkidiornis sylvicola. Three females were present between 10.15 and 10.30, paddling with Brazilian Teals Amazonetta brasiliensis, White-faced Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna viduata and Common Gallinule Gallinula galeata, before departing. This is a first sighting for REGUA and we are delighted to add it to our bird list.
REGUA is looking at offering a slightly different off-reserve excursion to its lodge visitors in the future. Specialities of another rare Atlantic Forest habitat – mangroves.
The mangroves at the back of the Guanabara Bay are quite inaccessible unless one organises a small boat to negotiate the straightened channels. Led by the birding twins, Daniel and Gabriel Mello, members of the Rio de Janeiro Bird Club (COA) converged on the quay at seven in the morning to board three boats and search for species known specifically from this habitat.
Crested Doradito is a fairly widespread species but difficult to see as it is restricted to marshy inaccessible areas. Spectacled Tyrant is known mainly from the south of Brazil but migrates to Rio de Janeiro for the winter, so we were all very pleased to see it. Rusty-collared Seedeater is fairly widespread along the Atlantic Forest but is difficult to see at REGUA. The excellent views and interesting habitat make it an ideal trip for visitors and REGUA is excited to be able to offer this new trip in the near future.