The Water Quality Monitoring Programme is an integral part of Guapiaçu III Environmental Education scheme at Regua. This initiative aims at raising young people’s awareness of water resources, its use and its care indicating the association between forest and water provision.
The programme targets Cachoeiras de Macacu and Itaborai municipal and state-run school students who are trained to collect and analyse the Guapiaçu, Macacu and Caceribu river waters. Water sampling (physical, chemical and biological elements in the water) takes place at 12 different sites both upstream and downstream urban areas of the referred rivers.
Covid-19 pandemic outbreak at the beginning of the year forced this programme to be held online with no water sampling trips organized. In October, the project team reinstated the latter following strict guidelines from health agencies including the use of personal protective equipment and working with small groups. The reinstated water sampling trip was carried out at point 7, in Boca do Mato neighbourhood which is located upstream Cachoeiras de Macacu town. Students were able to learn about benthic macroinvertebrates, which are water quality bioindicators.
Water sampling awakens a new approach to water use in young people in addition to being a very different and fun activity. 45 Environmental Monitors in Cachoeiras de Macacu were trained and are now ready to assist Guapiacu III project team in this programme. Guapiacu III project is currently starting the on-line Itaborai municipality school students´s recruiting process.
After the tree planting period, the phase known as post-implementation consists of the maintenance of the future forest. It is important to protect planted saplings especially from the negative effects of opportunistic weeds, insects such as the leaf-cutting ants and diseases. When necessary, new seedlings are to be planted replacing seedlings which have not flourished. These measures are taken to offer ideal conditions for the development of the seedlings, as well as to promote their establishment. A successful reforestation programme depends on efficient management and its periodicity. In general, maintenance should take place every 90 or 120 days, counted from the planting day or period. On a long-term period, maintenance contributes for the reestablishment of ecological services.
Ecosystem services provided by a restored area can improve local and regional microclimate, water regulation, stability of slopes, increased quality and quantity of water resources and the reestablishment of biodiversity through the connection of forest fragments.
To verify whether the new forest is developing well and fulfilling its ecological role, it is necessary to monitor and evaluate its growth. We have two monitoring steps: the first one, which follows INEA (Environmental State Agency in Rio de Janeiro) Resolution No. 143 from 2017, that checks the quality of restored areas; and the second one, which evaluates the accumulated biomass and carbon stock in restored areas by ‘Guapiaçu Project’ Petrobras funded project.
The first stage of monitoring happens annually after the tree planting has taken place. The main purpose is to fulfil commitments and legal obligations following INEA`s resolution. At this stage, the methodology chosen is the Rapid Ecological Diagnosis – DER. The procedure to monitor the restored area’s development is based on the direct measurement of seven ecological parameters, which are: density of the planted area, percentage of zoochoric species, height of plants, equitability of individuals, species richness, canopy and grass cover. While measuring these parameters, the spontaneous arrival of new individuals of plants on the restored area can be verified, some older trees are expected to be flowering or fruiting (especially the pioneer species) and also animals on site should be able to be noticed, such as insects, birds, rodents and small mammals.
The second monitoring stage is carried out when four years have passed by. The first 100 ha tree planting that took place in the first stage of the Guapiaçu Project between the years of 2013 and 2015 received carbon certification by the Biodiversity Community Climate Alliance (ACCB). This certification provided a quality seal to these reforested areas. Tree planting carried out in the subsequent phases of this project (more 160 hectares) were incorporated into the biomass accumulation monitoring plan, according to the methodology and assumptions certified with the ACCB, and will be able to receive certification after completing four years since implementation.
Biomass monitoring takes place from the fourth year on because it requires the saplings to have their DBH (Diameter at breast height) more developed so that one can use it as a parameter in the application of allometric equations. These equations are used for the analysis of biomass and carbon stock in the plantations, as well as to obtain the values of CO2 sequestered by the new forest. With that, REGUA took the commitment to monitor the biomass accumulation in these plots over the next 30 years. Over this 30 year span, more than 13,500 tons of carbon are expected to be stored and 49,680 tonnes of CO2 equivalent to be removed from the atmosphere.
If you shop with Amazon, you can help to support REGUA.
Just register the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest Trust as your “AmazonSmile Charity”. The AmazonSmile Foundation will then give 0.5% of all your eligible purchases to the charity which is supporting the protection and preservation of the Atlantic Rainforest in South-east Brazil and has given over £2.5 million to REGUA in the last 20 years.
Once you have registered the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest Trust as the charity you wish to support, as long as you log into your AmazonSmile account your purchases will generate vital funds which will help to continue our work.
If you prefer to make a donation directly please click on the donate button at the bottom of this page.
We have had a very sad news recently, the tapir Eva was hit on a dirt road by a motorcyclist, and days later was found dead. Luckily the motorcyclist was not seriously injured. Eva’s eight-month-year-old male offspring has not been hit. We’re setting up reinforced feeding points where Eva often used to visit with her baby, so we’re going to monitor him very closely.
Accidents involving wild animals are a major problem worldwide, it is estimated that 475 million wild animals are run over each year on Brazilian roads. In the case of large animals such as tapirs, these accidents can cause serious trouble. Respecting speed limits and driving carefully on roads near natural areas are ways to avoid these types of accident. Refauna together with Guapiacu III Petrobras funded project and REGUA are providing, with the support of the municipality of Cachoeiras de Macacu, speed reducers and signs for the road near REGUA, to reduce the chance of more accidents.
Eva was the first female tapir to be reintroduced at REGUA. She lived in the wild for almost three years and left two cubs. When she arrived at REGUA, she was very shy and didn’t come too close to people, but after being released, in few months, she didn’t approach anyone any longer, behaving like a wild tapir. She established her territory between REGUA and other rural properties and could be spotted walking with the other reintroduced tapir Valente, the baby tapir’s father. She fully adapted to the wild, as if she had never lived in captivity. We have learnt a lot from the tapir Eva and we are very saddened with her death. It comforts us to know that she had the chance to live a happy life in the wild and that Eva’s reintroduction helped us to gain experience for the reintroduction of other tapirs into the wild. Let’s hope her baby tapir lives a long life in REGUA’s territory.
Have you ever comeacross with thischarminglittle bromeliad?Tillandsiastrictaiswidely spread throughout South America and inBrazilitoccursfromthestateofBahiatoRio GrandedoSul.It is usually an epiphytic organism that can be found inforests, rupestrian grasslands andinthecaatinga region. It flourishesallyearroundanditsflowering peak takes placeinAugust.
Tillandsiastricta is consideredoneofthemostcharacteristicandknownspecieswithinthegenus TillandsiaL.,which includes about 600 species,beingthelargestgenus of thesubfamilyTillandsioideae. It’s bright pink to purplish flowers are often mistaken for bracts, a leaf-like colourful structure from which an inflorescence may grow, being able to attract many differentpollinators.
Most oftillandsiaspecieshavegreatornamentalvalue and for that reason they are constantlyextractedfromtheirnaturalenvironment, putting thematriskofextinctiondespitetheirwidegeographicaldistribution. Thebromeliaceaefamilyofwhichthe tillandsioideaesubfamilyispart of is often pollinated by vertebrates rather than insects.Studies undertaken intheAtlanticForestof SoutheasternBrazilhave found thatbromeliadsform the largestgroup of ornithophilousplants that are pollinated by hummingbirds.Theavailabilityofornithophilousflowersthroughouttheyear helps keepinghummingbird’s populationinthearea, thus helping the reproductive success of the plant species involved.
This is the Eueides isabella dianassa, belonging to the Nymphalidae family, subfamily Heliconiinae. This species flies all year round, however is often seen on the drier months of winter.
This species has a short life cycle, about 2-3 months and often remains close to the host plant (passion fruit/passifloras) where larvae feed on their leaves. The female is slightly larger than the male and lays isolated eggs on the underside of the leaves. The larvae, known as caterpillars, feed on leaves by scraping the lower surface while they are small.
Eventually when they become larger, they gnaw the edges of the leaves. When they reach the fifth age (after changing ‘skin’ 4 times to continue growing after stretching) instead of changing the skin, they abandon the plant and look for other sheltered places (walls, windows, dry wood or tree trunks) where the pupa or chrysalis is formed, staying another 4 to 6 weeks until the adult butterfly emerges.
On a sunny winter afternoon, mating was recorded. The males performed an “8” shaped movement around the female releasing pheromones. The female, already receptive, had her motionless abdomen waiting for the male. There were 3 males flying around the female, but in this case, the female only chose one to mate.
REGUA are delighted to be able to attend the Virtual Birdfair which is taking place online this year. So although travel throughout the world is disrupted the Bird Fair will still be there, just a click away.
REGUA will be present, and the Team will be with you all in spirit throughout the weekend. Once live we will publish a link to bring you closer to our “stand”.
All the usual favourites will be there with live and pre-recorded talks, films, a photography competition and the familiar auction.
The full Birdfair programme of lectures and events will be fully operational from 18th August until the 23rd August but until then you can follow the link to Virtual Birdfair here to take a look at the first Virtual Birdfair.
In spite of the the Covid-19 pandemic, forest restoration is proceeding at REGUA observing all the necessary measures to safeguard the staff´s health. Already 18 hectares have been planted within the “Armenio” land in the vicinity of Matumbo village.
Thirty thousand seedlings of 113 Atlantic Forest different tree species were planted since February this year. Aside this, the maintenance of the 60 hectares planted in 2017-2019 has also been completed and we are now in the process of planting five hectares belonging to REGUA´s partners as part of the Petrobras socio-environmental Guapiaçu III project. Brazilian Forest Code obliges land owners to restore hillsides with slopes over 45º, hill tops, water springs and riparian vegetation alongside rivers and streams. REGUA is making this available for partners who share the same conservation vision within the Guapiaçu watershed.
The project “Survey and Distribution of Orchids of the Ecological Reserve of Guapiaçu” was developed by OrquidaRio Orquidófilos Associados, between November 2006 and September 2007. Along the trails we recorded and mapped 107 species of orchids, distributed in 51 genera. Of these, 44 species are new occurrences for Munic. of Cachoeiras de Macacu. Many of the species that occur in REGUA can be found in other preserved areas of Serra dos Órgãos, some of which have a wider distribution. The objectives of this research were:
to know and map the orchids that occur in REGUA;
provide information so that orchids can be used as additional material for the local environmental education program;
publicize the area’s orchid flora so that they are included and appreciated as part of REGUA’s ecotourism attractions.
Subsequently, the list of orchids that occur in REGUA grew a lot, with the addition of several micro-orchids identified by Helmut Seehawer, a great connoisseur of our flora. Some of the species found during the work were reproduced in the laboratory of Orquidário Quinta do Lago, at Itaipava and after some years some were reintroduced back into the reserve by members of OrquidaRio. Now, with the construction of the greenhouse, many of the species that occur in REGUA’s forests will be part of this collection that aims to show visitors the charms and varieties of the great Orchidaceae family.
Tropical America is one of the regions on Earth with the greatest animal and botanical biodiversity. Brazil, due to its continental dimensions, is included in the roll of the top five countries with the greatest biological wealth, which includes a rich fauna of butterflies with two different aspects: the fauna of the Amazon and that of the Atlantic Forest.
With the advent of digital cameras, many citizens began to spend their leisure hours on nature walks and adventures, using these cameras to record the beauties they are observing, obviously butterflies are one of the preferred targets of these ecotourists within the group of insects. But there are so many species, that for those who are not specialists in this group (Lepidoptera), it is difficult to identify the majority of them. Unfortunately and unlike birds, the butterfly guides published in Brazil are counted on less than a handful, precisely because the number of species exceeds 4000, with around 1000 in the Atlantic Forest biome alone!
Thus, it is with great satisfaction and joy that we finally managed to publish this guide for the Serra dos Órgãos, the central mountain range of the State of Rio de Janeiro, after 4 years of exhaustive research, writing and searching for natural photos of the species included (just over 800), which encompasses almost all of those registered for the area. The book was made possible with the collaboration of more than a dozen people (amateurs and professionals, such as the late Luiz Claudio Marigo) who made their photos, data and records of butterflies in south-east Brazil available. This area encompasses 90% of the Brazilian butterfly species listed as threatened or vulnerable under the IUCN criteria, with 20% of them occurring in the Serra dos Órgãos.
Unfortunately, in order to make a minimum of 500 copies, we had to choose the English language to cover a potential larger audience that could find some use in the book. Even though a bilingual edition was originally considered, it was later found that printing costs, sales price, etc. would be excessively high, and our aim has always been to provide an extremely accessible identification tool for the general public.
Orders worldwide can be made from NHBS. Orders within the the UK may also be placed direct with co-author Alan Martin (please send a cheque payable to the ‘Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest Trust’ with your name and address to Alan Martin, Alureds Oast, Northiam, East Sussex, TN31 6JJ, England).
The Environment Week (01/06 to 05/06 2020) began with the viewing of the “Grande Vida” trail from home. The narrated tour begins on the Yellow trail and reaches the wooden bridge in which the viewer is accompanied by the sounds of nature, specially of birds that often can be seen and heard at REGUA’s wetlands. It is possible to select icons such as photos and self-explanatory posters that are present along the trail showing the Atlantic Forest biodiversity, animal tracks, view of the wetlands, forest dynamics and some of the conservation work carried out at REGUA.
The idea is quite innovative, even though there are already some virtual visits in National Parks across the country. What makes it different is the fact that it was made in a Private Nature Reserve (RPPN). It is worth mentioning that home office has changed the routine of many professionals worldwide, however this is far from preventing people’s contact with nature. Thus, it is essential to share contents with technological tools, as well as to keep up with digital media trends. The Environment Week was also featured with several live sessions broadcasted on Instagram, covering topics related to other projects financed by Petrobras that are part of Guanabara Bay network. All of these initiatives are a means to bring a little inspiration to those in quarantine respecting social isolation.
Aguas Compridas is an area of the reserve that we reforested with World Land Trust funding back in 2012. Just last week our bird guide Adilei, heard the call of Bertoni’s Antbird Drymophila rubricollis in this area. Bertoni’s Antbird is an Atlantic Forest Endemic and normally associated with higher altitudes, between 900 and 2000 metres above sea level. As this piece of land is at around 95 metres above sea level, Adilei was surprised to hear the species there.
At around 08:00, Adilei left his house as usual with his trusty binoculars. He heard the call and eventually found the bird in this small piece of secondary forest scrub. Only the single male bird was seen and it was singing its heart out, sadly without a reply. Was it simply lost, or maybe calling to a female? Maybe it had been forced low down as it is unusually cold at the moment, even for this, our winter season.
It will be interesting to see if it is heard again. Unfortunately Adilei did not have his camera with him on this occasion, so here’s a photograph of a different individual I took recently, to highlight how stunning this bird is.
As part of their ongoing survey of spiders and other arachnids from REGUA, Dr Renner Baptista and his students from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro have described two new jumping-spiders (Salticidae) from the reserve: Arnoliseus hastatus and Arnoliseus falcatus.
Both species belong to the Arnoliseus, a genus of Brazilian jumping-spiders described only as recently as 2002. To date, both of these new species are known only from REGUA.
These additions bring the number of spiders recorded at REGUA to an astonishing 425 species, and Renner reports that the species richness at REGUA is still is going up fast! A species list for REGUA will be published on our website soon.
To read the paper describing the new species click here.
REGUA is very pleased to announce that Petrobras Socio-Environmental renewed the funding of the GGV or now the Guapiaçu III programme. The project continues with its objectives in restoration and education. Aside strengthening the Atlantic Forest ecosystem at REGUA through further tree planting, and continuing in supporting education, a new element will be the support for the current tapir reintroduction programme.
Forest restoration: A mixture of tree planting and natural regeneration on 100 hectares will occur in the Guapiaçu watershed, as well as monitoring of Petrobras funded 260 hectares with the aim to measure carbon sequestration. Native trees are planted in a mixture of pioneer, early secondary and climax species. In addition this project will identify and select a further 190 hectares within the watershed as part of a restoration data bank.
Environmental education: Primary and Secondary Schools will continue to visit REGUA on the “Grande Vida trail” which runs from the start of the Yellow Trail to the wooden bridge. The first 400 metres of the trail have been adapted to host physically handicapped visitors. Self-explanatory posters along the trail describe some forest processes and some of the conservation work carried out at REGUA. The project team will visit kindergartens in both Cachoeiras de Macacu and Itaborai municipalities.
GGV will continue with the water quality monitoring programme involving 80 Secondary students trained by the team to monitor Guapiaçu, Macacu and Caceribu rivers water quality at determined sampling sites along each river (both upstream and downstream urban areas) to produce data on the rivers’s physical-chemical characteristics. The team will also be studying biological indicators of water quality.
Tapir reintroduction support programme: Guapiaçú III Petrobras Socio-Environmental project will sponsor the transport, the telemetry equipment, promotion and community outreach programme in the area. A futher six tapirs will be released at REGUA as from June 2020.
There have been 110 species of hawkmoth recorded in the Serra dos Orgaos and only a further four in the state of Rio de Janeiro.
A recent visit to REGUA by Alan Martin in March 2020 added the 80th hawkmoth species for REGUA, Aellopos ceculus, a day flying moth somewhat similar to the European Hummingbird Hawkmoth Macroglossum stellatarum. It was found laying eggs only a few hundred metres from the lodge.
A further 14 species have been found and photographed close to REGUA, but at higher altitudes than are easily reached within the reserve. Some expeditions to add some of these to the list along with some of the high altitude bird species has to be a priority for future visits.
The Yellow Rat Snake Spilotes pullatus, a semi-arboreal species, which feeds on small rodents, amphibians, lizards and even other snakes, is easily found in forests, in open areas such as pastures and trails and can even be seen around human constructions in search of food. Despite being a large snake, reaching up to 3 metres, it’s very agile and not venomous, with yellow and black colors.
Recently, an old skin left after shedding (the process being called ecdysis) was found at the research accomodation, Casa Pesquisa, which in adult individuals occurs on average once a year. This process occurs when the outer layer of the skin, formed by keratin, is replaced by a new one. This exchange takes place when snakes, in general, grow or when the outermost layer is damaged. Ecdysis lasts from 5 to 7 days and during this period the snake becomes more vulnerable to predators as vision is reduced due to fluid accumulation between new and old skin.
Back in 2015 Alan Martin and Jorge Bizarro started work on a guide to butterflies to accompany the three REGUA books already published that are specific to the REGUA area (hawkmoths, dragonflies and birds). What started as a three year project has taken five years, partly because the number of species recorded in the area is more than had been anticipated but also because it proved very difficult to source photos of some of the rarer species.
The book is now about to be printed and it covers 803 species (excluding grass skippers) with descriptions, comparisons to similar species, global distribution and notes on the ecology, behaviour and host plants. All but three of the species are illustrated with over 1,300 photos of live specimens or where not available, photos of pinned specimens. There are also introductory texts for each family, subfamily and tribe.
The book will be distributed by NHBS, but in the UK is best ordered from Alan Martin at a reduced price of £30 plus £5 postage (please see our Publications page for details). All the profits from the sale of the book will go to REGUA.