Tapir Jasmin being released into the wild

TAPIRS ARE RETURNING TO RIO DE JANEIRO FORESTS AFTER 100 YEARS OF EXTINCTION  

Professor Maron Galliez, the project coordinator, trying to remove Jasmin from the puddle (© João Stutz).

Professors Fernando Fernandez, Alexandra Pires, Maron Galliez and Marcelo Rheingantz conceived REFAUNA project with the purpose of reintroducing and managing fauna species which are locally extinct or are suffering some level of threat within their original distribution. Introducing animals into the wild help reestablish the interaction animal-plant and ecological  processes, contributing for the development of a healthy and balanced  ecosystem. The fundamental ecological processes of ecosystems are the water cycle, biogeochemical (or nutrient) cycling, energy flow and community dynamics which support the long-term persistence of biodiversity. Fragmentation and habitat loss have negatively impacted medium and larger forest mammal populations. In large forest fragmentsoverhunting has driven several mammal  species to both significant population reduction and species extinctionThis human interference in forest dynamics has impacted species diversity and abundance resulting in what is known as “defaunation’ in the Anthropocene .                                                                                                             

REFAUNA Tapir reintroduction programme at REGUA started in 2017 and is supported and implemented by Rio de Janeiro Federal University (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro State University (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro Federal Rural University (UFRRJ) and Rio de Janeiro Federal Institute (IFRJ)To date, 11 tapirs (females and males) have been reintroduced within REGUA´s land.

Moody Jasmin not wanting to leave the release pen (© Vitor Marigo).

In August 2020 we had the female tapir Jasmin arriving at REGUA. She came from Guarulhos zoo, in São Paulo, and spent about 3 months on the release pen to get familiarized with the new environment. There were feeding points set up by one of our staff members, Sidnei, who came every day to feed Jasmin. Finally, the release day arrived! It was meant to happen the previous day; however, Jasmin was a bit moody and nervous, so she threw herself into the puddle and didn’t leave the release pen area. Only today we managed to open the gate allowing Jasmin to leave the release pen without hesitation. These next days are very important to keep track of Jasmin. She is being monitored by a tracking collar and she will probably be looking for a place to settle.   

 

Going, Going, Gone.

Going, Going, Gone. by Josef O’Connor, on display at the Royal Academy of Arts (© Josef O’Connor)

British artist Josef O’Connor has teamed up with our UK partner the World Land Trust to help save 20 hectares of Atlantic Forest in the Guapiaçu valley. Josef is selling edition prints of his work entitled Going, Going, Gone, currently on display as Lot 44 at the Royal Academy Winter Exhibition in London.

Centuries of deforestation have left a mere 7% of the original Atlantic Forest area standing, and what is left remains highly threatened. With generous donations, REGUA is able to purchase areas of Atlantic Forest in the Guapiaçu valley as well as reforest cleared areas to connect these fragments, restoring deforested land and preserving the Atlantic Forest’s unique biodiversity.

Going, Going, Gone features a visual representation of the area to be purchased. Lot 44 is a screen-print onto an aerial photograph of the region, with 100 prints available at £400 each to raise £20,000. Each print sold in the edition equates to 0.5 acres.

Josef is hoping that environmentally conscious art lovers will help him raise funds to save this area of forest. “We all know our way of life is killing the planet, so we have a clear choice – either take responsibility for our actions and work together to bring about positive change, or face the stark reality that the ecosystems we all rely on will soon be lost forever. Going, Going, Gone was conceived to encourage people to be part of the solution. It’s a great opportunity to be part of something truly transformational, so I’m hopeful it will really appeal to those determined to make a difference.”

Going, Going Gone by Josef O’Connor will be on show until 3rd January 2021, and prints of Lot 44 to raise funds for this appeal are available for purchase here.

Guapiaçu III Water Quality Monitoring Programme in Cachoeiras de Macacu and Itaboraí Municipalities

Macroinvertebrate analysis done by one of the environmental monitors (© Tatiana Horta).

The Water Quality Monitoring Programme is an integral part of Guapiaçu III Environmental Education scheme at Regua. This initiative aims at raising young people’s awareness of water resources, its use and its care indicating the association between forest and water provision. 

The programme targets Cachoeiras de Macacu and Itaborai municipal and state-run school students who are trained to collect and analyse the Guapiaçu, Macacu and Caceribu river waters. Water sampling (physical, chemical and biological elements in the water) takes place at 12 different sites both upstream and downstream urban areas of the referred rivers.  

Covid-19 pandemic outbreak at the beginning of the year forced this programme to be held online with no water sampling trips organized. In October, the project team reinstated the latter following strict guidelines from health agencies including the use of personal protective equipment and working with small groups. The reinstated water sampling trip was carried out at point 7, in Boca do Mato neighbourhood which is located upstream Cachoeiras de Macacu town. Students were able to learn about benthic macroinvertebrates, which are water quality bioindicators.

Water sampling awakens a new approach to water use in young people in addition to being a very different and fun activity. 45 Environmental Monitors in Cachoeiras de Macacu were trained and are now ready to assist Guapiacu III project team in this programme. Guapiacu III project is currently starting the on-line Itaborai municipality school students´s recruiting process.

 

Professor Pericles and students collecting benthic macroinvertebrates (© Tatiana Horta).

Tree monitoring programme

After the tree planting period, the phase known as post-implementation consists of the maintenance of the future forest. It is important to protect planted saplings especially from the negative effects of opportunistic weeds, insects such as the leaf-cutting ants and diseases. When necessary, new seedlings are to be planted replacing seedlings which have not flourished. These measures are taken to offer ideal conditions for the development of the seedlings, as well as to promote their establishment. A successful reforestation programme depends on efficient management and its periodicity. In general, maintenance should take place every 90 or 120 days, counted from the planting day or period. On a long-term period, maintenance contributes for the reestablishment of ecological services.

Field team during monitoring programme (©Aline Damasceno).

 

Ecosystem services provided by a restored area can improve local and regional microclimate, water regulation, stability of slopes, increased quality and quantity of water resources and the reestablishment of biodiversity through the connection of forest fragments.

To verify whether the new forest is developing well and fulfilling its ecological role, it is necessary to monitor and evaluate its growth. We have two monitoring steps: the first one, which follows INEA (Environmental State Agency in Rio de Janeiro) Resolution No. 143 from 2017, that checks the quality of restored areas; and the second one, which evaluates the accumulated biomass and carbon stock in restored areas by ‘Guapiaçu Project’ Petrobras funded project.

Rapid Ecological Diagnosis – DER being applied on restored areas (© Aline Damasceno).

The first stage of monitoring happens annually after the tree planting has taken place. The main purpose is to fulfil commitments and legal obligations following INEA`s resolution. At this stage, the methodology chosen is the Rapid Ecological Diagnosis – DER. The procedure to monitor the restored area’s development is based on the direct measurement of seven ecological parameters, which are: density of the planted area, percentage of zoochoric species, height of plants, equitability of individuals, species richness, canopy and grass cover. While measuring these parameters, the spontaneous arrival of new individuals of plants on the restored area can be verified, some older trees are expected to be flowering or fruiting (especially the pioneer species) and also animals on site should be able to be noticed, such as insects, birds, rodents and small mammals.

Diameter at breast height (DBH) used as a parameter in the application of allometric equations (© Aline Damasceno).

The second monitoring stage is carried out when four years have passed by. The first 100 ha tree planting that took place in the first stage of the Guapiaçu Project between the years of 2013 and 2015 received carbon certification by the Biodiversity Community Climate Alliance (ACCB). This certification provided a quality seal to these reforested areas. Tree planting carried out in the subsequent phases of this project (more 160 hectares) were incorporated into the biomass accumulation monitoring plan, according to the methodology and assumptions certified with the ACCB, and will be able to receive certification after completing four years since implementation.

Biomass monitoring takes place from the fourth year on because it requires the saplings to have their DBH (Diameter at breast height) more developed so that one can use it as a parameter in the application of allometric equations. These equations are used for the analysis of biomass and carbon stock in the plantations, as well as to obtain the values of CO2 sequestered by the new forest. With that, REGUA took the commitment to monitor the biomass accumulation in these plots over the next 30 years. Over this 30 year span, more than 13,500 tons of carbon are expected to be stored and 49,680 tonnes of CO2 equivalent to be removed from the atmosphere.

 

Help to raise funds for REGUA with AmazonSmile

If you shop with Amazon, you can help to support REGUA. Just register the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest Trust as your “AmazonSmile Charity”. The AmazonSmile Foundation will then give 0.5% of all your eligible purchases to the charity which is supporting the protection and preservation of the Atlantic Rainforest in South-east Brazil and has given over £2.5 million to REGUA in the last 20 years. Once you have registered the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest Trust as the charity you wish to support, as long as you log into your AmazonSmile account your purchases will generate vital funds which will help to continue our work.

Follow the link: smile.amazon.co.uk/ch/1079038-0

If you prefer to make a donation directly please click on the donate button.

Please spread the word!

Tapir Eva’s offspring is a male tapir.

This was the last photograph of Eva and her offspring shortly before the accident (© Refauna).

We have had a very sad news recently, the tapir Eva was hit on a dirt road by a motorcyclist, and days later was found dead. Luckily the motorcyclist was not seriously injured. Eva’s eight-month-year-old male offspring has not been hit. We’re setting up reinforced feeding points where Eva often used to visit with her baby, so we’re going to monitor him very closely.
Accidents involving wild animals are a major problem worldwide, it is estimated that 475 million wild animals are run over each year on Brazilian roads. In the case of large animals such as tapirs, these accidents can cause serious trouble. Respecting speed limits and driving carefully on roads near natural areas are ways to avoid these types of accident. Refauna together with Guapiacu III Petrobras funded project and REGUA are providing, with the support of the municipality of Cachoeiras de Macacu, speed reducers and signs for the road near REGUA, to reduce the chance of more accidents.

The eight-month-year-old male tapir (© Refauna).

Eva was the first female tapir to be reintroduced at REGUA. She lived in the wild for almost three years and left two cubs. When she arrived at REGUA, she was very shy and didn’t come too close to people, but after being released, in few months, she didn’t approach anyone any longer, behaving like a wild tapir. She established her territory between REGUA and other rural properties and could be spotted walking with the other reintroduced tapir Valente, the baby tapir’s father. She fully adapted to the wild, as if she had never lived in captivity. We have learnt a lot from the tapir Eva and we are very saddened with her death. It comforts us to know that she had the chance to live a happy life in the wild and that Eva’s reintroduction helped us to gain experience for the reintroduction of other tapirs into the wild. Let’s hope her baby tapir lives a long life in REGUA’s territory.

Tapirs are known for being good swimmers and they can often be seen near the wetlands (© Toca Seabra).

 

Tillandsia stricta

Tillandsia stricta’s bracts and flowers (© Micaela Locke).

Have you ever come across with this charming little bromeliad? Tillandsia stricta is widely spread throughout South America  and in Brazil it occurs from the state of Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul. It is usually an epiphytic organism that can be  found  in forests, rupestrian grasslands and in the caatinga region. It flourishes all year round and its flowering peak  takes place in August.

Tillandsia stricta is considered one of the mostcharacteristic and known species within the genus  Tillandsia L., which includes about 600 species, being the largest genus of the subfamily Tillandsioideae. It’s bright pink to purplish flowers are often mistaken for bracts, a leaf-like colourful structure from which an inflorescence may grow, being able to attract many different pollinators.

Most of tillandsia species have great ornamental value and for that reason they are constantly extracted from their natural environment, putting them at risk of extinction despite their wide geographical distribution. The bromeliaceae family of which the tillandsioideae subfamily is part of is often pollinated by vertebrates rather than insects. Studies undertaken in the Atlantic Forest of Southeastern Brazil have found  that bromeliads form the largest group of ornithophilous plants that are pollinated by hummingbirds. The availability of ornithophilous flowers throughout the year helps keeping hummingbird’s population in the area, thus helping the reproductive success of the plant species involved. 

Eueides isabella dianassa

 

Eueides isabella dianassa individuals around a Passion fruit bush (© Micaela Locke).

This is the Eueides isabella dianassa, belonging to the Nymphalidae family, subfamily Heliconiinae. This species flies all year round, however is often seen on the drier months of winter.
This species has a short life cycle, about 2-3 months and often remains close to the host plant (passion fruit/passifloras) where larvae feed on their leaves. The female is slightly larger than the male and lays isolated eggs on the underside of the leaves. The larvae, known as caterpillars, feed on leaves by scraping the lower surface while they are small.

Male individuals performing an “8” shaped movement around the female (© Micaela Locke).

Eventually when they become larger, they gnaw the edges of the leaves. When they reach the fifth age (after changing ‘skin’ 4 times to continue growing after stretching) instead of changing the skin, they abandon the plant and look for other sheltered places (walls, windows, dry wood or tree trunks) where the pupa or chrysalis is formed, staying another 4 to 6 weeks until the adult butterfly emerges.

On a sunny winter afternoon, mating was recorded. The males performed an “8” shaped movement around the female releasing pheromones. The female, already receptive, had her motionless abdomen waiting for the male. There were 3 males flying around the female, but in this case, the female only chose one to mate.

 

The Virtual Birdfair goes live!

REGUA volunteers Sue Healey, Lee Dingain, Alan Martin, and Rachel Walls at the British Birdfair in 2018 (© Dan Bradbury)
REGUA volunteers Sue Healey, Lee Dingain, Alan Martin, and Rachel Walls at the British Birdfair in 2018 (© Dan Bradbury)

The Virtual Birdfair is now live. Visit the REGUA stand here:

Please note that if you want to donate to REGUA and help to support our project in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest you need to do this via our website here. Your money will go towards land purchase, tree planting and the restoration of the area, creating vital corridors between fragmented forest.

The donate buttons on the Birdfair site will go to this year’s BirdLife International project to protect the Helmeted Hornbill in Indonesia from illegal poaching and trading.

We hope you will enjoy the new virtual Birdfair experience.

2020 Virtual Birdfair

The REGUA stand at the Birdfair in 2019 (@copy; REGUA)
The REGUA stand at the Birdfair in 2019 (© REGUA)

REGUA are delighted to be able to attend the Virtual Birdfair which is taking place online this year. So although travel throughout the world is disrupted the Birdfair will still be there, just a click away. REGUA will be present, and the UK team will be with you all in spirit throughout the weekend. Once live we will publish a link to bring you closer to our “stand”.

All the usual favourites will be there with live and pre-recorded talks, films, a photography competition and the familiar auction. The full Birdfair programme of lectures and events will be fully operational from 18-23 August, but until then you can follow the link to the Virtual Birdfair here to take a look at the first Virtual Birdfair.

http://www.virtual.birdfair.org.uk/

An update on forest restoration at REGUA (August 2020).

Reforestation undertaken at one of REGUA’s partners area (© João Stutz).

 

In spite of the the Covid-19 pandemic, forest restoration is proceeding at REGUA observing all the necessary measures to safeguard the staff´s health. Already 18 hectares have been planted within the “Armenio” land in the vicinity of Matumbo village.

Thirty thousand seedlings of 113 Atlantic Forest different tree species were planted since February this year. Aside this, the maintenance of the 60 hectares planted in 2017-2019 has also been completed and we are now in the process of planting five hectares belonging to REGUA´s partners as part of the Petrobras socio-environmental Guapiaçu III project. Brazilian Forest Code obliges land owners to restore hillsides with slopes over 45º, hill tops, water springs and riparian vegetation alongside rivers and streams. REGUA is making this available for partners who share the same conservation vision within the Guapiaçu watershed.

 

The Orchids of REGUA

The project “Survey and Distribution of Orchids of the Ecological Reserve of Guapiaçu” was developed by OrquidaRio Orquidófilos Associados, between November 2006 and September 2007. Along the trails we recorded and mapped 107 species of orchids, distributed in 51 genera. Of these, 44 species are new occurrences for Munic. of Cachoeiras de Macacu. Many of the species that occur in REGUA can be found in other preserved areas of Serra dos Órgãos, some of which have a wider distribution. The objectives of this research were:

Maria do Rosário planting orchids on the wetlands (© Nicholas Locke).
  • to know and map the orchids that occur in REGUA;
  • provide information so that orchids can be used as additional material for the local environmental education program;
  • publicize the area’s orchid flora so that they are included and appreciated as part of REGUA’s ecotourism attractions.

Subsequently, the list of orchids that occur in REGUA grew a lot, with the addition of several micro-orchids identified by Helmut Seehawer, a great connoisseur of our flora. Some of the species found during the work were reproduced in the laboratory of Orquidário Quinta do Lago, at Itaipava and after some years some were reintroduced back into the reserve by members of OrquidaRio. Now, with the construction of the greenhouse, many of the species that occur in REGUA’s forests will be part of this collection that aims to show visitors the charms and varieties of the great Orchidaceae family.

A Guide to the Butteflies of the Serra dos Orgaos, South-eastern Brazil now available

Co-author Jorge Bizarro with our new Guide to the Butteflies of the Serra dos Orgaos, South-eastern Brazil
Co-author Jorge Bizarro with our new Guide to the Butteflies of the Serra dos Orgaos, South-eastern Brazil

Tropical America is one of the regions on Earth with the greatest animal and botanical biodiversity. Brazil, due to its continental dimensions, is included in the roll of the top five countries with the greatest biological wealth, which includes a rich fauna of butterflies with two different aspects: the fauna of the Amazon and that of the Atlantic Forest.

With the advent of digital cameras, many citizens began to spend their leisure hours on nature walks and adventures, using these cameras to record the beauties they are observing, obviously butterflies are one of the preferred targets of these ecotourists within the group of insects. But there are so many species, that for those who are not specialists in this group (Lepidoptera), it is difficult to identify the majority of them. Unfortunately and unlike birds, the butterfly guides published in Brazil are counted on less than a handful, precisely because the number of species exceeds 4000, with around 1000 in the Atlantic Forest biome alone!

Thus, it is with great satisfaction and joy that we finally managed to publish this guide for the Serra dos Órgãos, the central mountain range of the State of Rio de Janeiro, after 4 years of exhaustive research, writing and searching for natural photos of the species included (just over 800), which encompasses almost all of those registered for the area. The book was made possible with the collaboration of more than a dozen people (amateurs and professionals, such as the late Luiz Claudio Marigo) who made their photos, data and records of butterflies in south-east Brazil available. This area encompasses 90% of the Brazilian butterfly species listed as threatened or vulnerable under the IUCN criteria, with 20% of them occurring in the Serra dos Órgãos.

Unfortunately, in order to make a minimum of 500 copies, we had to choose the English language to cover a potential larger audience that could find some use in the book. Even though a bilingual edition was originally considered, it was later found that printing costs, sales price, etc. would be excessively high, and our aim has always been to provide an extremely accessible identification tool for the general public.

Orders worldwide can be made from NHBS. Orders within the the UK may also be placed direct with co-author Alan Martin (please send a cheque payable to the ‘Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest Trust’ with your name and address to Alan Martin, Alureds Oast, Northiam, East Sussex, TN31 6JJ, England).

The Guapiaçu III Project inaugurates a ‘virtual trail’ at REGUA

Drone footage of the visitor's centre and wetlands (© Projeto Guapiaçu)
Drone footage of the visitor’s centre and wetlands (© Projeto Guapiaçu)

 

The Environment Week (01/06 to 05/06 2020) began with the viewing of the “Grande Vida” trail from home. The narrated tour begins on the Yellow trail and reaches the wooden bridge in which the viewer is accompanied by the sounds of nature, specially of birds that often can be seen and heard at REGUA’s wetlands. It is possible to select icons such as photos and self-explanatory posters that are present along the trail showing the Atlantic Forest biodiversity, animal tracks, view of the wetlands, forest dynamics and some of the conservation work carried out at REGUA.

Self-explanatory poster on food chain present on the trail (© Micaela Locke).

The idea is quite innovative, even though there are already some virtual visits in National Parks across the country. What makes it different is the fact that it was made in a Private Nature Reserve (RPPN). It is worth mentioning that home office has changed the routine of many professionals worldwide, however this is far from preventing people’s contact with nature. Thus, it is essential to share contents with technological tools, as well as to keep up with digital media trends. The Environment Week was also featured with several live sessions broadcasted on Instagram, covering topics related to other projects financed by Petrobras that are part of Guanabara Bay network. All of these initiatives are a means to bring a little inspiration to those in quarantine respecting social isolation.

You can access the virtual tour 360° by clicking on: https://www.projetoguapiacu.com/

Bertoni’s Antbird found at unusually low altitude at REGUA

Bertoni's Antbird <em>Drymophila rubricollis</em> (© Nicholas Locke)
Bertoni’s Antbird Drymophila rubricollis (© Nicholas Locke)

Aguas Compridas is an area of the reserve that we reforested with World Land Trust funding back in 2012. Just last week our bird guide Adilei, heard the call of Bertoni’s Antbird Drymophila rubricollis in this area. Bertoni’s Antbird is an Atlantic Forest Endemic and normally associated with higher altitudes, between 900 and 2000 metres above sea level. As this piece of land is at around 95 metres above sea level, Adilei was surprised to hear the species there.

At around 08:00, Adilei left his house as usual with his trusty binoculars. He heard the call and eventually found the bird in this small piece of secondary forest scrub. Only the single male bird was seen and it was singing its heart out, sadly without a reply. Was it simply lost, or maybe calling to a female? Maybe it had been forced low down as it is unusually cold at the moment, even for this, our winter season.

It will be interesting to see if it is heard again. Unfortunately Adilei did not have his camera with him on this occasion, so here’s a photograph of a different individual I took recently, to highlight how stunning this bird is.

Two new jumping-spiders described from REGUA

Male Arnoliseus hastatus, one of two new species of jumping-spider from REGUA described in February 2020. The species name refers to the huge projection on the male chelicera, similar to a hasta, which is latin for spear. (© André Almeida Alves)
Male Arnoliseus hastatus, one of two new species of jumping-spider from REGUA described in February 2020. The species name refers to the huge projection on the male chelicera, similar to a hasta, which is latin for spear. (© André Almeida Alves)

As part of their ongoing survey of spiders and other arachnids from REGUA, Dr Renner Baptista and his students from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro have described two new jumping-spiders (Salticidae) from the reserve: Arnoliseus hastatus and Arnoliseus falcatus.

Both species belong to the Arnoliseus, a genus of Brazilian jumping-spiders described only as recently as 2002. To date, both of these new species are known only from REGUA.

These additions bring the number of spiders recorded at REGUA to an astonishing 425 species, and Renner reports that the species richness at REGUA is still is going up fast! A species list for REGUA will be published on our website soon.

To read the paper describing the new species click here.

Guapiaçu III Petrobras socio-environmental funded project (2020-2022)

The Guapiaçu III team (© Breno Viana)
The Guapiaçu III team (© Breno Viana)

REGUA is very pleased to announce that Petrobras Socio-Environmental renewed the funding of the GGV or now the Guapiaçu III programme. The project continues with its objectives in restoration and education. Aside strengthening the Atlantic Forest ecosystem at REGUA through further tree planting, and continuing in supporting education, a new element will be the support for the current tapir reintroduction programme.

Forest restoration: A mixture of tree planting and natural regeneration on 100 hectares will occur in the Guapiaçu watershed, as well as monitoring of Petrobras funded 260 hectares with the aim to measure carbon sequestration. Native trees are planted in a mixture of pioneer, early secondary and climax species. In addition this project will identify and select a further 190 hectares within the watershed as part of a restoration data bank.

Environmental education: Primary and Secondary Schools will continue to visit REGUA on the “Grande Vida trail” which runs from the start of the Yellow Trail to the wooden bridge. The first 400 metres of the trail have been adapted to host physically handicapped visitors. Self-explanatory posters along the trail describe some forest processes and some of the conservation work carried out at REGUA. The project team will visit kindergartens in both Cachoeiras de Macacu and Itaborai municipalities.

GGV will continue with the water quality monitoring programme involving 80 Secondary students trained by the team to monitor Guapiaçu, Macacu and Caceribu rivers water quality at determined sampling sites along each river (both upstream and downstream urban areas) to produce data on the rivers’s physical-chemical characteristics. The team will also be studying biological indicators of water quality.

Tapir reintroduction support programme: Guapiaçú III Petrobras Socio-Environmental project will sponsor the transport, the telemetry equipment, promotion and community outreach programme in the area. A futher six tapirs will be released at REGUA as from June 2020.

REGUA interview with talk: Wildlife

Last week, Allan Archer of talk: Wildlife interviewed Lee Dingain of the REGUA UK Team about the work that REGUA is doing to conserve and restore the Atlantic Forest of the upper Guapiaçu valley. The conversation covers topics such as the habitats and biodiversity at REGUA, the threats to the forest and biodiversity, reforestation, wetland restoration, the tapir reintroduction, and how to visit REGUA. To watch the interview visit the talk: Wildlife YouTube channel or click below.

80 hawkmoth species now recorded at REGUA!

<em>Aellopos ceculus</em>, photographed at the lodge on 15 March 2020 (&copy; Alan Martin)
Aellopos ceculus, photographed at the lodge on 15 March 2020 (© Alan Martin)

There have been 110 species of hawkmoth recorded in the Serra dos Orgaos and only a further four in the state of Rio de Janeiro.

A recent visit to REGUA by Alan Martin in March 2020 added the 80th hawkmoth species for REGUA, Aellopos ceculus, a day flying moth somewhat similar to the European Hummingbird Hawkmoth Macroglossum stellatarum. It was found laying eggs only a few hundred metres from the lodge.

A further 14 species have been found and photographed close to REGUA, but at higher altitudes than are easily reached within the reserve. Some expeditions to add some of these to the list along with some of the high altitude bird species has to be a priority for future visits.